# LaTeX for Researchers, Part 4: Tables

July 18, 2014

So far we’ve covered some of the basics of creating a functional document in LaTeX:

One of the last true essentials for social science researchers like me is tables. Maybe somewhere down the line I’ll have a need for LaTeX’s awesome equation editing, but today is not that day. So let’s make some tables!!!

Now, tables is definitely the part of LaTeX that I have the least experience creating. Not because I don’t use them, but because I rarely create them myself. The purpose of a table in an academic paper is usually to contain correlation coefficients or something of that sort. If you use the awesome statistical programming language R to do your stats, then there are already a few good ways to generate LaTeX tables. The R packages xtable and Hmisc have functions to create LaTeX tables for you that you can then paste or import directly into your document. The stargazer package does as well, though it’s a bit more limited in what types of data it will table-ify for you. Nonetheless, if you have ever manually typed correlation matrices into a paper, you might want to look into using R and these packages to make your life easier.

In the previous post about figures, we talked about floats in LaTeX. They are LaTeX’s way of managing placement of figures and tables to make the document look as good as possible. To continue my trend of Word-bashing, have you ever had a small table span across a couple pages just because of where it happened to fall in a paragraph? Then the next page has no headers, so you have to manually recreate them. Then you change something in the document above the table, and the duplicated headers are now in the middle of the table? Ya, it happens. Word sucks. Anyway, placing tables in a floating environment lets them avoid those trouble.

The name of the float environment for a table is table. Putting it in the float allows us to give it a label and a caption just like a figure. The label allows us to cross-reference the table just like we can a figure. The name of the environment for the table itself is tabular. This environment takes an argument to specify the alignment of each column in the table (right, center, or left alignged). Inside the tabular environment, table cells are separated with &, and table rows are separated with \\. If you are familiar with HTML, you can think of & somewhat like <td> and \\ as <tr>. Sort of.

When you specify the alignment, you can also specify whether you want vertical rules (lines) between your columns or bordering your table using the pipe | character. You specify the horizontal lines inside the table itself using \hline. So a very basic (and ugly) table with two columns will look a little bit like this:

\begin{table}
\centering
\caption{This is an excellent table.}
\label{tab:test1}
\begin{tabular}{|l|r|}
\hline
Item & Cost \\
\hline
Test content & 1.50 \\
\hline
Tutorial & Free \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}

Notice that I threw the \centering in there to make the whole thing centered. I can’t see any reason why you would ever not want that, so we’re going with it. You may also notice that my columns are not aligned in the source code. While that would make it more readable, it doesn’t change the format of the output. Because I use Emacs and AucTeX, I can use M-x align-current to align my tables’ source code. Your favorite tool may have something similar, so look around for it.

I'm Ryan Schuetzler, a husband and father, professor at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and professional nerd. You can follow me on twitter, but there's not much there.